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Play media. Further information: Israeli—Palestinian peace process and Iran—Israel proxy conflict. Main articles: Geography of Israel and Wildlife of Israel.
Geography of Israel. Coastal plain. Judaean Mountains. Jordan Valley. Levantine Sea Mediterranean. Dead Sea. Gulf of Eilat.
West Bank. Gaza Strip. Satellite images of Israel and neighboring territories during the day left and night right.
Further information: List of earthquakes in the Levant. Main articles: Demographics of Israel and Israelis. For a more comprehensive list, see List of cities in Israel.
Main article: Languages of Israel. Main articles: Religion in Israel and Abrahamic religions. Religion in Israel v t e. Until , figures for Christians also included Others.
Main article: Education in Israel. Main articles: Politics of Israel and Israeli system of government. See also: Criticism of the Israeli government.
President Reuven Rivlin. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Main articles: Judiciary of Israel and Israeli law. Main article: Districts of Israel.
Districts of Israel. Tel Aviv. Judea and Samaria Area. Main articles: Israeli-occupied territories and Israeli occupation of the West Bank. Israeli-occupied territories.
Southern Lebanon occupation Sinai occupation. Jordan Valley annexation West Bank annexation. Main articles: Foreign relations of Israel , International recognition of Israel , and Israeli foreign aid.
Diplomatic relations. Diplomatic relations suspended. Former diplomatic relations. No diplomatic relations, but former trade relations.
No diplomatic relations. Main articles: Israel Defense Forces and Israeli security forces. Further information: List of wars involving Israel , List of the Israel Defense Forces operations , and Israel and weapons of mass destruction.
Main article: Economy of Israel. Main articles: Science and technology in Israel and List of Israeli inventions and discoveries.
Main article: Transport in Israel. Main article: Tourism in Israel. See also: List of archaeological sites in Israel and the Palestinian territories.
Main article: Energy in Israel. Main article: Culture of Israel. Main article: Israeli literature. Main articles: Music of Israel and Dance in Israel.
Main article: Cinema of Israel. Main article: Media of Israel. For a more comprehensive list, see List of Israeli museums. Main article: Israeli cuisine.
Main article: Sport in Israel. See Status of Jerusalem for more information. Gaza is still considered to be " occupied " by the United Nations, international human rights organisations, and the majority of governments and legal commentators, despite the Israeli disengagement from Gaza , due to various forms of ongoing military and economic control.
For more details of this terminology dispute, including with respect to the current status of the Gaza Strip, see International views on the Israeli-occupied territories and Status of territories captured by Israel.
For an explanation of the differences between an annexed but disputed territory e. BBC News. Retrieved 14 August Jerusalem Post.
Retrieved 6 December The Czech Republic currently, before the peace between Israel and Palestine is signed, recognizes Jerusalem to be in fact the capital of Israel in the borders of the demarcation line from The Times of Israel.
Infobae in Spanish. Guatemala's embassy was located in Jerusalem until the s, when it was moved to Tel Aviv. Israel National News.
Embassy to Move". The New York Times. The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 4 September The Guardian. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Retrieved 8 August Knesset website. The Arabic language has a special status in the state; Regulating the use of Arabic in state institutions or by them will be set in law.
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 20 February Retrieved 27 December International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 23 March Retrieved 29 June United Nations Development Programme.
Retrieved 24 September Retrieved 26 December Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Retrieved 1 March The refusal to recognize Jerusalem as Israeli territory is a near universal policy among Western nations.
This approach applies equally to West and East Jerusalem and is not affected by the occupation of East Jerusalem in To a large extent it is this approach that still guides the diplomatic behaviour of states and thus has greater force in international law.
Ahlstrom, Steven W. Holloway, Lowell K. Bread, Wine, Walls and Scrolls. Bloomsbury Publishing. Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 30 October Berquist Society of Biblical Lit.
Oxford University Press. A History of the Jewish People. Harvard University Press. The Encyclopedia of Christianity.
Eerdmans Publishing. Future government of Palestine". United Nations. Retrieved 21 March Most had sat glued to their radio sets broadcasting live from Flushing Meadow.
A collective cry of joy went up when the two-thirds mark was achieved: a state had been sanctioned by the international community.
The Zionist movement, except for its fringes, accepted the proposal. The Arab states hoped to accomplish this by conquering all or large parts of the territory allotted to the Jews by the United Nations.
And some Arab leaders spoke of driving the Jews into the sea and ridding Palestine "of the Zionist plague. But, in public, official Arab spokesmen often said that the aim of the May invasion was to "save" Palestine or "save the Palestinians," definitions more agreeable to Western ears.
Archived from the original on 17 March Netherlands International Law Review. United Nations Department of Public Information.
East Jerusalem has been considered, by both the General Assembly and the Security Council, as part of the occupied Palestinian territory.
Retrieved 10 October Homeland Security Today. Retrieved 26 April Tel Aviv Notes. Retrieved 25 March Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law.
Israel claims it no longer occupies the Gaza Strip, maintaining that it is neither a Stale nor a territory occupied or controlled by Israel, but rather it has 'sui generis' status.
Pursuant to the Disengagement Plan, Israel dismantled all military institutions and settlements in Gaza and there is no longer a permanent Israeli military or civilian presence in the territory.
However the Plan also provided that Israel will guard and monitor the external land perimeter of the Gaza Strip, will continue to maintain exclusive authority in Gaza air space, and will continue to exercise security activity in the sea off the coast of the Gaza Strip as well as maintaining an Israeli military presence on the Egyptian-Gaza border.
Israel continues to control six of Gaza's seven land crossings, its maritime borders and airspace and the movement of goods and persons in and out of the territory.
Egypt controls one of Gaza's land crossings. Israel has declared a no-go buffer zone that stretches deep into Gaza: if Gazans enter this zone they are shot on sight.
Gaza is also dependent on israel for inter alia electricity, currency, telephone networks, issuing IDs, and permits to enter and leave the territory.
Israel also has sole control of the Palestinian Population Registry through which the Israeli Army regulates who is classified as a Palestinian and who is a Gazan or West Banker.
Since aside from a limited number of exceptions Israel has refused to add people to the Palestinian Population Registry. Elizabeth Wilmshurst ed.
International Law and the Classification of Conflicts. Even after the accession to power of Hamas, Israel's claim that it no longer occupies Gaza has not been accepted by UN bodies, most States, nor the majority of academic commentators because of its exclusive control of its border with Gaza and crossing points including the effective control it exerted over the Rafah crossing until at least May , its control of Gaza's maritime zones and airspace which constitute what Aronson terms the 'security envelope' around Gaza, as well as its ability to intervene forcibly at will in Gaza.
Gawerc, Michelle Lexington Books. While Israel withdrew from the immediate territory, Israel still controlled all access to and from Gaza through the border crossings, as well as through the coastline and the airspace.
Dowty University of California Press. The Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza is the longest military occupation in modern times.
New Left Review. International Review of the Red Cross. Although the basic philosophy behind the law of military occupation is that it is a temporary situation modem occupations have well demonstrated that rien ne dure comme le provisoire A significant number of post occupations have lasted more than two decades such as the occupations of Namibia by South Africa and of East Timor by Indonesia as well as the ongoing occupations of Northern Cyprus by Turkey and of Western Sahara by Morocco.
The Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, which is the longest in all occupation's history has already entered its fifth decade.
Freedom in the World. Freedom House. Retrieved 20 March Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 12 August Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 10 February Business Insider.
Retrieved 24 January World Happiness Report. Retrieved 26 February Retrieved 5 December The Palestine Post. Archived from the original on 15 August New York.
Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 19 January Dever, Did God Have a Wife?
Eerdmans Publishing, p. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman. See also Hosea Retrieved 4 January Evolutionary Anthropology.
After a century of exhaustive investigation, all respectable archaeologists have given up hope of recovering any context that would make Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob credible "historical figures" [ Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research.
A History of Ancient Israel and Judah. Westminster John Knox Press. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites and Canaanites in the Iron I period c.
The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature.
Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites for the Iron I period.
In Frederick E. NYU Press, pp. England: Sheffield Academic Press Ltd. Journal of Biblical Literature. The Jewish Study Bible 2nd ed. The Ancient Near East.
July The Bible and Interpretation. Hasel, Michael G. Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. In Becking, Bob ; Grabbe, Lester eds. As a West Semitic personal name it existed long before it became a tribal or a geographical name.
This is not without significance, though is it rarely mentioned. The word Israel originated as a West Semitic personal name. One of the many names that developed into the name of the ancestor of a clan, of a tribe and finally of a people and a nation.
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University of South Dakota. Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 9 February A History of Palestine, — Cambridge University Press.
Cooper The geography of genocide. University Press of America. Retrieved 1 January Retrieved 17 May Haifa was taken [ Albert of Aachen does not mention the date in a clear manner either.
From what he says, it appears that it was mainly the Jewish inhabitants of the city who defended the fortress of Haifa. In his rather strange Latin style, he mentions that there was a Jewish population in Haifa, and that they fought bravely within the walls of the city.
He explains that the Jews there were protected people of the Muslims the Fatimids. They fought side by side with units of the Fatimid army, striking back at Tancred's army from above the walls of the citadel Judaei civis comixtis Sarracenorum turmis until the Crusaders overcame them and they were forced to abandon the walls.
The Muslims and the Jews then managed to escape from the fortress with their lives, while the rest of the population fled the city en masse.
Whoever remained was slaughtered, and huge quantities of spoils were taken. Resnick CUA Press. Susan B. Edgington Oxford: Clarendon Press, , and Maimonides established a yearly holiday for himself and his sons, 6 Cheshvan , commemorating the day he went up to pray on the Temple Mount, and another, 9 Cheshvan, commemorating the day he merited to pray at the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron.
Bloch One a day: an anthology of Jewish historical anniversaries for every day of the year. In David Ben-Gurion ed.
The Jews in their Land. Aldus Books. Saladin: hero of Islam. The Jewish settlement in Palestine, — Retrieved 21 December Devora Publishing.
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Twenty centuries of Jewish life in the Holy Land: the forgotten generations. Israel Economist. The Holy Land under mandate. Hyperion Press.
Retrieved 25 December It was the time when the Jewish settlements of Galilee were destroyed by the Druze: Tiberias was completely desolate and only a few of former Safed residents had returned Encyclopedia Britannica.
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Targum Press. Hastening redemption: Messianism and the resettlement of the land of Israel. University Alabama Press.
Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 29 March The Jewish Agency for Israel1. Retrieved 21 September The Independent. The Making of the Modern Near East — Encyclopaedia Judaica.
Detroit: Macmillan Reference. In , Hashomer was disbanded and Haganah "The Defense" was established. Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved 27 August A Survey of Palestine Reprint ed.
Lay summary. British Government. Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 14 July Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Retrieved 15 October English Historical Review.
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Retrieved 3 September Osprey Publishing. We will sweep them into the sea. Ahmed Shukeiry, one of Haj Amin al-Husseini's aides and, later, the founding chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization , simply described the aim as "the elimination of the Jewish state.
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The transcript makes it clear that British policy acted as a brake on Jordan. Country Studies. Retrieved 12 February Retrieved 17 June Land and Power.
Stanford University Press. Arlen N. New York: The Free Press, The Founding of the State of Israel.
Greenhaven Press. Syracuse University Press. Nasr Fedayeen to attack Eisenhower and Israel: U. University Press of Florida. The blockade closed Israel's sea lane to East Africa and the Far East, hindering the development of Israel's southern port of Eilat and its hinterland, the Nege.
Another important objective of the Israeli war plan was the elimination of the terrorist bases in the Gaza Strip, from which daily fedayeen incursions into Israel made life unbearable for its southern population.
And last but not least, the concentration of the Egyptian forces in the Sinai Peninsula, armed with the newly acquired weapons from the Soviet bloc, prepared for an attack on Israel.
Here, Ben-Gurion believed, was a time bomb that had to be defused before it was too late. Reaching the Suez Canal did not figure at all in Israel's war objectives.
The escalation continued with the Egyptian blockade of the Straits of Tiran, and Nasser's nationalization of the Suez Canal in July On October 14, Nasser made clear his intent:"I am not solely fighting against Israel itself.
My task is to deliver the Arab world from destruction through Israel's intrigue, which has its roots abroad. Our hatred is very strong.
There is no sense in talking about peace with Israel. There is not even the smallest place for negotiations. The continued blockade of the Suez Canal and Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli shipping, combined with the increased fedayeen attacks and the bellicosity of recent Arab statements, prompted Israel, with the backing of Britain and France, to attack Egypt on October 29, Gamal Abdel Nasser, who declared in one speech that "Egypt has decided to dispatch her heroes, the disciples of Pharaoh and the sons of Islam and they will cleanse the land of Palestine There will be no peace on Israel's border because we demand vengeance, and vengeance is Israel's death.
The level of violence against Israelis, soldiers and civilians alike, seemed to be rising inexorably. In the short-term, however, he employed a new tactic to prosecute Egypt's war with Israel.
He announced it on August 31, Egypt has decided to dispatch her heroes, the disciples of Pharaoh and the sons of Islam and they will cleanse the land of Palestine These "heroes" were Arab terrorists, or fedayeen, trained and equipped by Egyptian Intelligence to engage in hostile action on the border and infiltrate Israel to commit acts of sabotage and murder.
Retrieved 19 July Retrieved 31 May The Suez Crisis. Israeli border tension. Egypt refrained from reactivating the Fedaeen, and As a result of these actions of Egyptian hostility within Israel, Israelis were wounded and killed.
In alone, as a result of this aspect of Egyptian aggression, 28 Israelis were killed and wounded. Retrieved 18 September Cambridge Review of International Affairs.
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Greenwood Publishing Group. Mutawi Jordan in the War. Although Eshkol denounced the Egyptians, his response to this development was a model of moderation.
His speech on 21 May demanded that Nasser withdraw his forces from Sinai but made no mention of the removal of UNEF from the Straits nor of what Israel would do if they were closed to Israeli shipping.
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Israel's Lebanon War. Begin: The Haunted Prophet. Random House. A History of the Israeli—Palestinian conflict. Indiana University Press. Retrieved 28 March Boston College.
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Elazar; Morton Weinfeld eds. The Global Context of Migration to Israel. Moment Magazine. Israel Economic Review.
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Round Table on Language and Linguistics. In , the newly independent state of Israel took over the old British regulations that had set English, Arabic, and Hebrew as official languages for Mandatory Palestine but, as mentioned, dropped English from the list.
In spite of this, official language use has maintained a de facto role for English, after Hebrew but before Arabic.
Kluwer Academic Publishers. English is not considered official but it plays a dominant role in the educational and public life of Israeli society.
It is the language most widely used in commerce, business, formal papers, academia, and public interactions, public signs, road directions, names of buildings, etc.
English behaves 'as if' it were the second and official language in Israel. In terms of English, there is no connection between the declared policies and statements and de facto practices.
While English is not declared anywhere as an official language, the reality is that it has a very high and unique status in Israel.
It is the main language of the academy, commerce, business, and the public space. Retrieved 10 May Pew Research Center.
Archived from the original PDF on 7 August Bnei Brak Tel Aviv. Bat Yam Tel Aviv. Ramat Gan Tel Aviv. Ashkelon Southern District.
Jaffa Tel Aviv. Herzliya Tel Aviv. Kfar Saba Central District. Ra'anana Central District. Hadera Haifa. Bet Shemesh Jerusalem.
Lod Central District. Nazareth Northern District. Modiin Ilit Jerusalem. Ramla Central District. Nahariyya Northern District.
Qiryat Ata Haifa. Givatayim Tel Aviv. Kiryat Gat Southern District. Acre Northern District. Eilat Southern District. Afula Northern District. Hod HaSharon Central District.
Kiryat Ono Tel Aviv. Tiberias Northern District. Qiryat Yam Haifa. Ness Ziona Central District. Qiryat Bialik Haifa.
Ramat HaSharon Tel Aviv. Dimona Southern District. Or Yehuda Tel Aviv. Interessante Orte in Israel Städte. AlSayid Tribe , Southern District. Arad , Southern District.
Ariel , Judea and Samaria Area. Azor , Tel Aviv. Basma , Haifa. Beit Jann , Northern District. Bet Dagan , Central District.
Binyamina-Giv'at Ada , Haifa. Bir Hadaj , Southern District. Bnei Ayish , Central District. Bu'ayna-Nujaydat , Northern District.
Daliyat al Karmel , Haifa. Deir el Asad , Northern District. Er Reina , Northern District. Even Yehuda , Central District.
Gan Yavne , Central District. Ganei Tikva , Central District. Gedera , Central District. Giv'at Shmuel , Tel Aviv. Herzliya Pituah , Tel Aviv.
Jatt , Haifa. Judeida Makr , Northern District. Kadima Zoran , Central District. Kefar Weradim , Northern District.
Kefar Yona , Central District. Kfar Yasif , Northern District. Kisra - Sume'a , Northern District. Kuseifa , Southern District.
Laqiyya , Southern District.