Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'relic' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Many translated example sentences containing "relics" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. rel·ic [ˈrelɪk] SUBST. 1. relic (object): relic · Relikt.
Übersetzung für "relics" im Deutschharambeeartgallery.com | Übersetzungen für 'relics' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Beispiele of relic. relic. All of this liturgical and musical restructuring occurred in conjunction with a translation of relics, an architectural building. barbaric relic - Keynes, [WIRTSCH.] barbarisches Relikt - der Goldstandard. relic karst [GEOL.].
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Manchen Seiten SchieГџerei GieГџen nur Relics oder zwei Wochen Relics, die innerhalb der gesamten EU gГltig ist. - "relics" auf DeutschReligious offices, indulgences, and relics of saints were offered for sale.
Instead of having to travel to be near to a venerated saint , relics of the saint could be venerated locally. Relics are often kept on a circular decorated theca, made of gold, silver, or other metal.
Believers would make pilgrimages to places believed to have been sanctified by the physical presence of Christ or prominent saints, such as the site of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
As holy relics attracted pilgrims and these religious tourists needed to be housed, fed, and provided with souvenirs, relics became a source of income not only for the destinations that held them, but for the abbeys, churches, and towns en route.
Relics were prized as they were portable. They could add value to an established site or confer significance on a new location.
On occasion guards had to watch over mortally ill holy men and women to prevent the unauthorized dismemberment of their corpses as soon as they died.
Relics were used to cure the sick, to seek intercession for relief from famine or plague, to take solemn oaths, and to pressure warring factions to make peace in the presence of the sacred.
Courts held relics since Merovingian times. Angilbert acquired for Charlemagne one of the most impressive collections in Christendom.
Relics entered into commerce along the same trade routes followed by other portable commodities. Matthew Brown likens a ninth-century Italian deacon named Deusdona, with access to the Roman catacombs, as crossing the Alps to visit monastic fairs of northern Europe much like a contemporary art dealer.
Canterbury was a popular destination for English pilgrims, who traveled to witness the miracle-working relics of Thomas Becket, the sainted archbishop of Canterbury who was assassinated by knights of King Henry II in The motivations included the assertion of the Church's independence against rulers, a desire to have an English indeed Norman English saint of European reputation, and the desire to promote Canterbury as a destination for pilgrimage.
In the first years after Becket's death, donations at the shrine accounted for twenty-eight percent of the cathedral's total revenues.
Many churches were built along pilgrimage routes. A number in Europe were either founded or rebuilt specifically to enshrine relics, such as San Marco in Venice and to welcome and awe the large crowds of pilgrims who came to seek their help.
Romanesque buildings developed passageways behind the altar to allow for the creation of several smaller chapels designed to house relics. From the exterior, this collection of small rooms is seen as a cluster of delicate, curved roofs at one end of the church, a distinctive feature of many Romanesque churches.
Gothic churches featured lofty, recessed porches which provided space for statuary and the display of relics.
Historian and philosopher of art Hans Belting observed that in medieval painting, images explained the relic and served as a testament to its authenticity.
In Likeness and Presence , Belting argued that the cult of relics helped to stimulate the rise of painting in medieval Europe. Reliquaries are containers used to protect and display relics.
While frequently taking the form of caskets, they have many other forms including simulations of the relic encased within e.
Since the relics themselves were considered valuable, they were enshrined in containers crafted of or covered with gold, silver, gems, and enamel.
In the absence of real ways of assessing authenticity, relic-collectors became prey to the unscrupulous, and some extremely high prices were paid.
Forgeries proliferated from the very beginning. Augustine already denounced impostors who wandered around disguised as monks, making a profit from the sale of spurious relics.
Pieces of the True Cross were one of the most highly sought after of such relics; many churches claimed to possess a piece of it, so many that John Calvin famously remarked that there were enough pieces of the True Cross to build a ship from.
By the middle of the 16th century, the number of relics in Christian churches became enormous, and there was practically no possibility to distinguish the authentic from the falsification, since both of them had been in the temples for centuries and were objects for worship.
Calvin says that the saints have two or three or more bodies with arms and legs, and even a few extra limbs and heads. Due to the existence of counterfeit relics, the Church began to regulate the use of relics.
Canon Law required the authentication of relics if they were to be publicly venerated. They had to be sealed in a reliquary and accompanied by a certificate of authentication, signed and sealed by someone in the Congregation for Saints ,  or by the local Bishop where the saint lived.
Without such authentication, relics are not to be used for public veneration. The documents and reliquaries of authenticated relics are usually affixed with a wax seal.
In Catholic theology, sacred relics must not be worshipped, because only God is worshipped and adored. Instead, the veneration given to them was " dulia ".
Saint Jerome declared, "We do not worship, we do not adore, for fear that we should bow down to the creature rather than to the Creator, but we venerate the relics of the martyrs in order the better to adore Him whose martyrs they are.
The sale or disposal by other means of "sacred relics" meaning first and second class without the permission of the Apostolic See is nowadays strictly forbidden by canon of the Code of Canon Law.
Peter's chains , preserved in San Pietro in Vincoli , Rome, a second-class relic. Main Altar of St. Relics of St.
Demetrius in the cathedral of Thessalonika , Greece. The importance of relics in the Byzantine world can be seen from the veneration given to the pieces of the True Cross.
Many great works of Byzantine enamel are staurothekes, or relics containing fragments of the True Cross.
Other significant relics included the girdle worn by the Virgin , and pieces of the body or clothing of saints.
Such relics called contact relics , or secondary relics were, however, scarce and did not provide most believers with ready access to proximity to the holy.
The growth in the production and popularity of reproducible contact relics in the fifth and sixth centuries testifies to the need felt for more widespread access to the divine.
These contact relics usually involved the placing of readily available objects, such as pieces of cloth, clay tablets, or water then bottled for believers, in contact with a relic.
Alternatively, such objects could be dipped into water which had been in contact with the relic such as the bone of a saint. Either way, the charge is nonsense.
In , a Frenchman, Rohault de Fleury, catalogued all the relics of the True Cross, including relics that were said to have existed but were lost.
He measured the existing relics and estimated the volume of the missing ones. Then he added up the figures and discovered that the fragments, if glued together, would not have made up more than one-third of a cross.
The scandal was that most of the True Cross, after being unearthed in Jerusalem in the fourth century, was lost again! Certainly nothing he said indicates that.
Have there been any frauds? But in most cases, relics are either known to be genuine or there is some reason to think they may be genuine, even if complete proof is impossible.
Take the famous Shroud of Turin , which scientists have been examining for some years. The scientists admit their experiments cannot establish that the Shroud is the actual burial cloth of Christ—they admit that is impossible—but they also say they might be able to eliminate the possibility of forgery.
That is, they apparently are demonstrating that the Shroud was a burial cloth that was wrapped around someone who was crucified in the same manner as Christ, perhaps at about the same time he was crucified there is considerable dispute about the age of the Shroud, and the carbon tests that have been performed on the Shroud have been defective , and in the same area he was crucified.
Most relics cannot be fakes because most relics are the bones of ordinary saints of history who were well known and whose remains were never lost in the first place.
The Church has never pronounced that any particular relic—even that of the cross—is genuine. But the Church does approve of honor being given to the relics that can with reasonable probability be considered authentic.
Such tests were applied as the historical and antiquarian science of that day was capable of devising. Very often however, this test took the form of an appeal to some miraculous sanction, as in the well known story repeated by St.
Ambrose, according to which, when doubt arose which of the three crosses discovered by St. Helena was that of Christ , the healing of a sick man by one of them dispelled all further hesitation.
Similarly Egbert, Bishop of Trier , in , doubting as to the authenticity of what purported to be the body of St. Celsus, "lest any suspicion of the sanctity of the holy relics should arise, during Mass after the offertory had been sung, threw a joint of the finger of St.
Celsus wrapped in a cloth into a thurible full of burning coals, which remained unhurt and untouched by the fire the whole time of the Canon" Mabillon "Acta SS.
The decrees of synods upon this subject are generally practical and sensible, as when, for example, Bishop Quivil of Exeter , in after recalling the prohibition of the General Council of Lyons against venerating recently found relics unless they were first of all approved by the Roman Pontiff , adds: "We command the above prohibition to be carefully observed by all and decree that no person shall expose relics for sale, and that neither stones, nor fountains, trees, wood, or garments shall in any way be venerated on account of dreams or on fictitious grounds.
Nevertheless it remains true that many of the more ancient relics duly exhibited for veneration in the great sanctuaries of Christendom or even at Rome itself must now be pronounced to be either certainty spurious or open to grave suspicion.
To take one example of the latter class, the boards of the Crib Praesaepe — a name which for much more than a thousand years has been associated, as now, with the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore—can only be considered to be of doubtful.
In his monograph "Le memorie Liberiane dell' Infanzia di N. Cozza Luzi frankly avows that all positive evidence for the authenticity of the relics of the Crib etc.
Strangely enough, an inscription in Greek uncials of the eighth century is found on one of the boards, the inscription having nothing to do with the Crib but being apparently concerned with some commercial transaction.
It is hard to explain its presence on the supposition that the relic is authentic. Similar difficulties might he urged against the supposed "column of the flagellation" venerated at Rome in the Church of Santa Prassede and against many other famous relics.
Still, it would be presumptuous in such cases to blame the action of ecclesiastical authority in permitting the continuance of a cult which extends back into remote antiquity.
On the one hand no one is constrained to pay homage to the relic, and supposing it to be in fact spurious, no dishonour is done to God by the continuance of an error which has been handed down in perfect good faith for many centuries.
On the other hand the practical difficulty of pronouncing a final verdict upon the authenticity of these and similar relics must be patent to all.
Each investigation would be an affair of much time and expense, while new discoveries might at any moment reverse the conclusions arrived at.
Further, devotions of ancient date deeply rooted in the heart of the peasantry cannot be swept away without some measure of scandal and popular disturbance.
To create this sensation seems unwise unless the proof of spuriousness is so overwhelming as to amount to certainty. Hence there is justification for the practice of the Holy See in allowing the cult of certain doubtful ancient relics to continue.
Meanwhile, much has been done by quietly allowing many items in some of the most famous collections of relics to drop out of sight or by gradually omitting much of the solemnity which formerly surrounded the exposition of these doubtful treasures.
For illustration's sake reference may be made to the Count de Riant's work "Exuviae Constantinopolitanae" or to the many documents printed by Mgr.
Barbier de Monault regarding Rome , particularly in vol. In most of these ancient inventories, the extravagance and utter improbability of many of the entries can not escape the most uncritical.
Moreover though some sort of verification seems often to be traceable even in Merovingian times, still the so called authentications which have been printed of this early date seventh century are of a most primitive kind.
They consist in fact of mere labels, strips of parchment with just the name of the relic to which each strip was attached, barbarously written in Latin.
It would probably be true to say that in no part of the world was the veneration of relics carried to greater lengths with no doubt proportionate danger of abuse, than among Celtic peoples.
The honour paid to the handbells of such saints as St. Patrick , St. Senan , and St. Mura , the strange adventures of sacred remains carried about with them in their wanderings by the Armorican people under stress of invasion by Teutons and Northmen , the prominence given to the taking of oaths upon relics in the various Welsh codes founded upon the laws of Howell the Good, the expedients used for gaining possession of these treasures, and the numerous accounts of translations and miracles , all help to illustrate the importance of this aspect of the ecclesiastical life of the Celtic races.
Translations At the same time the solemnity attached to translations was by no means a peculiarity of the Celts. The story of the translation of St.
Cuthbert's remains is almost as marvellous as any in Celtic hagiography. The forms observed of all-night vigils, and the carrying of the precious remains in "feretories" of gold or silver, overshadowed with silken canopies and surrounded with lights and incense , extended to every part of Christendom during the Middle Ages.
Indeed this kind of solemn translation elevatio corporis was treated as the outward recognition of heroic sanctity , the equivalent of canonization , in the period before the Holy See reserved to itself the passing of a final judgment upon the merits of deceased servants of God , and on the other hand in the earlier forms of canonization Bulls it was customary to add a clause directing that the remains of those whose sanctity was thus proclaimed by the head of the Church should be "elevated", or translated, to some shrine above ground where fitting honour could be paid them.
This was not always carried at once. Hugh of Lincoln , who died in , was canonized in , but it was not until that his remains were translated to the beautiful "Angel Choir" which had been constructed expressly to receive them.
This translation is noteworthy not only because King Edward I himself helped to carry the bier, but because it provides a typical example of the separation of the head and body of the saint which was a peculiar feature of so many English translations.
The earliest example of this separation was probably that of St. Edwin , king and martyr ; but we have also the cases of St.
Oswald, St. Chad, St. Richard of Chichester translated in , and St. William of York translated It is probable that the ceremonial observed in these solemn translations closely imitated that used in the enshrining of the relics in the sepulcrum of the altar at the consecration of a church while this in turn, as Mgr Duchesne has shown, is nothing but the development of the primitive burial service the martyr or saint being laid to rest in the church dedicated to his honour.
But the carrying of relics is not peculiar to the procession which takes place at the dedications of a church. Their presence is recognized as a fitting adjunct to the solemnities of almost every kind of procession , except perhaps those of the Blessed Sacrament , and in medieval times no exception was made even for these latter.
Feast of relics It has long been customary especially in churches which possessed large collections of relics, to keep one general feast in commemoration of all the saints whose memorials are there preserved.
An Office and Mass for this purpose will be found in the Roman Missal and Breviary , and though they occur only in the supplement Pro aliquibus locis and are not obligatory upon the Church at large, still this celebration is now kept almost universally.
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